The Publicness of Representation: The Basic Educators’ Perceptions and Political Consciousness in the Philippines

Authors

  • Mr. Victor P. Bactol, Jr. University of Santo Tomas/Leyte Normal University
  • Mr. Dennis C. Coronacion University of Santo Tomas

Keywords:

Citizens’ Participation, Democratization, Governance, Procedural Democracy, Substantive Democracy

Abstract

This study attempts to look behind the democratic deficit in the Philippines' extremely protracted political development by examining the recent condition of the country's representation through the lens of the constituent-public-school teachers' political ideas and consciousness on representative process. Employing phenomenology design, this study utilized depth interviewing techniques and purposive sampling involving 10 participants whose collected responses revealed fundamental data-based political beliefs and human consciousness on representation. With its bottom-up directional orientation, it is deemed indispensable for a more sophisticated citizens' participation and better democratization process in the country. The study revealed that the participants' concept of representative process mirrored persistent grassroots’ failed expectations based on their experiential understanding of the essence of representation common to Filipino basic educators. Further, the uncovered participants' consciousness on representation made latent positive outlooks toward active post-electoral participation material to the pending country's transition to federalism.

References

Aragones, E., & Sanchez-Pages (2009). A theory of participatory democracy based on the real case of Porto Alegre. European Economic Review, 53(1), 56-72. doi:10.1016/j.euroecorev.2008.09.006

Bogdandy, A., Häußler, S., Hanschmann, F., & Utz, R. (2005). State-building, nation-building, and constitutional politics in post-conflict situations: Conceptual clarifications and an appraisal of different approaches. Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, 9(1), 579-577. doi:10.1163/138946305775160401

Breuer, A. (2007). Institutions of direct democracy and accountability in latin america’s presidential democracies. Democratization, 14(4), 554–579. doi:10.1080/13510340701398287

Celis, K. & Mazur, A. (2012). Hanna pitkin's "concept of representation" revisited introduction.

Politics and Gender, 8(4), 508-512. doi: 10.1017/S1743923X12000517

Childs, S. & Lovenduski, J (2012), Political Representation. In G. Waylen, K.Celis, J.Kantola, & L.Weldon,(Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Politics (pp.489–513). Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

Coffe, H., & Michels, A. (2014). Education and support for representative, direct and stealth democracy. Electoral Studies, 35, 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.electstud.2014.03.006

Coleman, S., & Wright, S. (2008). Political blogs and representative democracy. Information Polity, 13(1-2), 1-6. doi:10.3233/IP-2008-0140

Farrell, D. M. (2014). ‘Stripped down’ or reconfigured democracy. West European Politics, 37(2), 439-455, doi: 10.1080/01402382.2014.887873

Foucault, M. (1972). Power/knowledge selected interviews and other writings. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.

Fukuyama, F. (2015). Political Order and Political Decay. Profile Books Ltd.

Grill, C. J. (2007). The Public Side of Representation: A Study of Citizens’ Views about Representatives and the Representative Process. NY: State University of New York Press.

Hamilton, L. (2018). Freedom is power: Reinventing representative democracy. The Good Society, 26(1), 4–18. doi: 10.5325/goodsociety.26.1.0004

Jarvis, J. (2011). Public parts: How sharing in the digital age improves the way we work and live. NY: Simon & Schuster.

Hug, S. (2009). Some thoughts about referendums, representative democracy, and separation of powers. Constitutional Political Economy, 20(3–4), 251–266. doi:10.1007/s10602- 008-9065-1

Littlejohn, S. W., & Foss, K. A. (2008). Theories of human communication (9th ed.). CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

Locke, J. (1823). Two treatizes of government (New ed.). London: Thomas Tegg; W. Sharpe and Son.

Lutz, G. (2006). The interaction between direct and representative democracy in Switzerland.

Representation, 42(1), 45–57. doi:10.1080/00344890600583776

Mackin, G. (2005). Communication, power, and critique: Toward a critical theory of everyday resistant, ed. A. Sarat. Studies in law politics and society. USA: Amherst.

Mackin, G. (2005). Communication, power and critique: Toward a critical theory of everyday resistance. Studies in Law, Politics and Society, 35, 191–218. doi: 10.1016/s1059- 4337(04)35006-4

Mai-Lafia, M. (2013). Theories and practice of public administration. Abuja: Off Aminu Kano Crescent, Wuss II.

Manin, B., Przeworski, A & Stokes, S.C. (1999). Elections and representation. Democracy, accountability, and representation. London: Cambridge University Press.

Miranda, F. B. (2016). Conceptualizing and measuring modern democracy. In F.B. Miranda &

T. C. Rivera (Eds.) Chasing the Wind: Assessing Philippine Democracy, (2nd ed.). Philippines: U.P. Complex.

Nachura, A. B. (2015). Outline reviewer in political law. Philippines: VJ Graphic Arts, Inc. Nicolas, R. R. (2015). Philippine political culture. Philippines: U.P. Diliman.

Pettit, P. (2015). Varieties of public representation. Political representation. London: Cambridge University Press.

Pimbert, M., & Wakeford, T. (2001). PLA 40: Overview-deliberative democracy and citizen empowerment. Participatory Learning and Action, 40, 23-28.

Ronas, M.C. (2016). The never ending democratization in the Philippines. In F.B. Miranda &

T. C. Rivera (Eds.) Chasing the Wind: Assessing Philippine Democracy, (2nd ed.). Philippines: U.P. Complex.

Rodriguez, A. M. G. & Lacandula-Rodriguez, T.A. M. (Eds.). (2009). Agenda for Hope: Ideas on Nation Building, Democratizing Governance. Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

Rothstein, B. (2009). Creating political legitimacy. American Behavioral Scientist, 53(3), 311– 330. doi:10.1177/0002764209338795

Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (2005). Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data (2nd ed.). CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Salveron, R. J. D. C., & Visto-Visayan, A. G. (2017). Issues on Philippine federalization as perceived by the barangay captains in the component cities of Bukidnon, Philippines. Governance Theory and Practice in Asia pacific, 104.

Schmidt, M. G. (2002). Political performance and types of democracy: Findings from comparative studies. European Journal of Political Research, 41(1), 147-163. doi:10.1111/1475-6765.00007

Schofield, N. (2002). Chapter 9 Representative democracy as social choice. Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare, 1, 425-455. doi:10.1016/s1574-0110(02)80013-3

Tormey, S. (2014). The contemporary crisis of representative democracy. Democratic Theory, 1(2), 104-112.

Urbinati, N. (2007). Representative democracy: Principles and genealogy. Perspectives on Politics, 5(1) , 360-361.

Van Dijk, H., & Coffé, H. (2011). Meer of minder directe democratie? - de houding van de burgers tegenover verschillende politieke besluitvormingsprocessen. Mens En Maatschappij, 86(2), 203–226. doi:10.5117/mem2011.2.dijk

Wa-Mbaleka, S. (2018). Writing Your Thesis and Dissertation Qualitatively: Fear No More.

Philippines: Oikos Biblios Publishing House.

Wampler, B. (2012). Participation, representation, and social justice: Using participatory governance to transform representative democracy. Polity, 44(4), 666-682.

Wojtyla, K. (1979). The acting person. Studies in Soviet Thought, 20(4), 373-376. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20098919

Wood, E. (2009). AP Comparative Government and Politics: A Study Guide (4th ed).

Pennsylvania: Wood Yard.

Published

2021-12-01

How to Cite

P. Bactol, Jr, V. ., & C. Coronacion, D. . (2021). The Publicness of Representation: The Basic Educators’ Perceptions and Political Consciousness in the Philippines. Journal of Education and Society, 4(1), 10–24. Retrieved from http://lnu.edu.ph/lnujournals/index.php/jes/article/view/69

Issue

Section

Research Articles